Alabama's U.S.Senators Tuesday voted against allowing a bipartisan budget deal to come up for a final vote.   Sens. Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions were among 37 senators, all Republicans, who mounted an unsuccessful effort to block the bill.    The effort fell short because 12 Republicans voted with all Democrats to advance the measure, which covers two years, and restores billions in funding cut by the sequester.   Sessions, the top Republican on the Senate Budget Committee, blasted the deal.   "Congress couldn't sustain the heat, couldn't honor the promise we made ... to reduce the growth in spending," Sessions said.   A final vote was expected Wednesday.